[1]胡玉鸿.民国时期法律学者“法理”观管窥[J].法制与社会发展,2018,(05):5-46.
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民国时期法律学者“法理”观管窥()
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法制与社会发展[ISSN:1006-6128/CN:22-1243/D]

卷:
期数:
2018年05期
页码:
5-46
栏目:
法理中国研究
出版日期:
2018-09-10

文章信息/Info

作者:
胡玉鸿
关键词:
民国法学法理法律渊源法律原理法理中国
Keywords:
Legal Science in the Republic of ChinaRatio JurisSource of LawGeneral Principle of LawFali-China
摘要:
与立法将“法理”作为法律渊源密切相关,“法理”成为民国时期普遍使用的法学范畴,但究其名称,除“法理”外,又有“条理”、“理法”、“性法”、“学理”等不同称谓。从实在法角度上,学者们探讨了法理因何得以入法、法理是否为民法典规定的独立的法律渊源、法理在民法之外能否有适用的余地、法理是一种客观的存在还是一种主观的认识、法理依存的载体以及法理适用与法律类推的关系等基本问题。从更为宏观的学理层面,学者们对法理分别作了“宇宙万物自然之理”、“社会公理”、“自然法”、“道德”、“正义”、“情理”、“法意”、“法律原理”、“法律原则”等不同的界定,并将法理视为研究法学的根本方法。民国时期学者们有关法理的论述给予我们的启示是:法理研究对于法学而言极为重要,“法理中国”的号召恰逢其时;法理不是一个“概念”问题,而是一个“类型”或曰“理想类型”的问题;对法理的界定可以多种多样,但其根本则不脱于“法律基本原理”这一核心内涵;所有对法理或曰法律原理的研究最终必须归结到对人的研究之上。
Abstract:
“Ratio Juris”became a commonly used legal category in the Republic of China,which was closely related to the legislation taking“Ratio Juris”as a source of law.In academic research,there were many expression of this concept,such as“Reason of Human Being”(tiao li),“Laws Derived from Reason”(li fa),“Natural Law”(xing fa),“Doctrinal Principle of Law”(xue li) and so on. From the perspective of positive law,scholars discussed about some basic topics,such as why did ratio juris become a part of the legislation? Whether ratio juris should be an independent legal source in the domain of civil law?Is there any room for the application of ratio juris in other domains of law? Whether ratio juris is an objective existence or a subjective idea?How does ratio juris exist?What is the relationship between the application of ratio juris and legal reasoning?At a more macro academic level, scholars categorized ratio juris respectively into“natural reason of the whole universe”(yu zhou wan wu zi ran zhi li),“social axioms”(she hui gong li),“natural law”,“morality”,“justice”,“reasonableness”(qing li),“spirit of the laws”(fa yi),“general principle of law”(fa lv yuan li),“legal principle”and so on,and also regarded ratio juris as the fundamental method of legal science.Some enlightenments from these viewpoints are as follow:the inquiries about ratio juris are so important that“Fali-China” is a perfect slogan for now;ratio juris is a matter of “type”or“ideal type”but not“concept”; there could be various definitions of ratio juris which must be based on the core concept of the“general principle of law”;all the researches about ratio juris are ultimately attributed to the study of human being.

备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
*苏州大学王健法学院教授,南京师范大学中国法治现代化研究院特约研究员。
本文系国家社会科学基金重点项目“提升司法公信力法治路径研究”(15AFX013)的阶段性成果。
更新日期/Last Update: 2018-09-10